(This is a continuation of the series of posts on Q/A regarding the Qur’anic Ijazah and its process (translated from here), as mentioned in the concise treatise on this topic by Sh. Hasan Mustafaa al-Warraaqi حفظه الله.)
Q7. Does a student who has a defect in his pronunciation of some letters such as ر, س, and ص take the Ijazah once he has completed the recitation of the Qur’an to his shaykh?
A7. There are some whose recitation is good and precise except for there are some mistakes in the pronunciation of some letters, such as “biting” when articulating the letter ل, or the تكرير of ر, and doing this excessively. For such a student who cannot change such a defect day after day, and fails to correct it, there is no blame on him, and the evidence for this is the words of Allah: لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها, “Allah does not burden a soul more than it can bear.” As well as in the Hadeeth of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, where he said: إن الله تجوز لي عن أمتي الخطأ والنسيان, “Verily Allah has overlooked for me, regarding my Ummah, mistakes and forgetfulness.” And this is so long as the one who is making this mistake is not doing so intentionally, for in this case he is pardoned by the leave of Allah. And a maxim says, “Difficulty brings forth ease,” as well as another which says, “Ability is the focus of responsibility.” This means that Man is responsible for an action as long as he has the ability to do it, and conversely, if he does not have the ability, then he is not blameworthy.
And by the same token, if the defect is minor one, like a defect in some letters, then the shaykh gives this student the Ijazah upon some conditions:
- That this student is able to correct this mistake if it is found in others reciting.
- That the shaykh mentions this mistake in the Ijazah.
- That this defect is not present in all of the letters or most of them.
Q8. Is it permissible for the shaykh to stipulate a gift from the student upon completion of the Qur’an as some do today?
A8. Ibn al-Jazari رحمه الله mentions in his book, منجد المقرئين, page 60:
As for the acceptance of a gift from the one who recites to him, then a group from the Salaf refrained from this, because of their consciousness of Allah, due to it being given because of the recitation.
I say that as long as this is not a condition made by the shaykh for his student, and it due to the inclination of the student alone, then there is no harm in this. As for what happens today, then there is no power nor strength except by Allah, a shaykh will make this gift a condition even before the recitation begins and he might say to his student, for example, “I will take such and such per month, and such and such for the Ijazah, and as for the gift, then you will bring such and such or such and such…”
al-Imam al-Nawawi رحمه الله mentions in his book, التبيان, page 44/45:
And a teacher should not disgrace his teaching with greediness for an act of kindness he might get from some of those who recite to him, regardless if this act of kindness is some sort of wealth or service, even if it is little, and even if this act of kindness is in the form of a gift, such that if it wasn’t for the recitation, he would not have been gifted it.
And Ibn al-Jazari, commenting on this remark by al-Nawawi in his book, المنجد, page 61, said:
Either the reciter gives the gift before the recitation to his shaykh, or not, and if he does this, then it is not disliked.
I say that if the student gives a gift to his shaykh out of love and inclination towards him, and it is not difficult for him, then there is nothing wrong with this. It is only when this is placed as a condition, brings hardship upon the student, and if he is not able to bring this gift, the shaykh exposes him and he may prevent him from the Ijazah until he is presented with this gift, and we ask Allah for His pardon and protection.