Q/A on the Qur’anic Ijazah | Part 6

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Basmalah

(This is a continuation of the series of posts on Q/A  regarding the Qur’anic Ijazah and its process (translated from here), as mentioned in the concise treatise on this topic by Sh. Hasan Mustafaa al-Warraaqi حفظه الله.)

Q14:  Clarify what is considered negligence and what is considered harsh and severe with regard to the Qur’anic Ijazah.

A14.  Many students of knowledge have taken greater interest in the memorization of the Qur’an in recent times.  A great number have also taken interest in obtaining an Ijazah by reciting to different Mashayikh because of knowing its importance and value.  Therefore, greater interest is taken in the teachers of the Qur’an.  After the shaykh takes on 2 or 3 students, they go on to become teachers who have students of their own.  The number of students increases and while this is a good thing, there are instances where negligence or exaggeration takes place.

When negligence occurs, you see a student who falls into many mistakes, both minor and major, while the shaykh listens and does not respond.  Some respond to some mistakes, while leaving others.  This beginner student then completes the recitation of the Qur’an and says he has an Ijazah from such and such a shaykh while he has many mistakes in his recitation.

Imam al-Dhahabi, d. 625AH said, as mentioned in the introduction by Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Saud of the book إجازات القراء, pages 54-55, that Ibn al-Abbar said:

I would not take [the Ijazah] from such a person because of his lenience in correcting mistakes when giving ear to the Qur’an and teaching it.  May Allah be lenient with him.

One of the ways that this type of negligence occurs is when one is teaching more than one student at the same time, even if some of the people of knowledge go on to give such a student Ijazah, such as ‘Alam al-Deen al-Sakhawi, except that such a method carries the risk of being grossly neglectful.

As for excessiveness and harshness when teaching, then this is the other extreme.  Regarding this, Abu ‘Amr al-Daani said:

Nothing prevented me from reciting to Abu Taahir except that he was abominable.  He used to teach while having a set of keys in front of him he would use to strike the student on the head when he made a mistake.  So I was afraid of this and did not recite to him, although I have heard his books from him.

Q15:  Is it permissible to obtain an Ijazah in one of the narrated ways of recitation?

A15:  Yes, it is permissible for a student to recite one of the narrated ways of recitation because in this there is the option to choose.  It is not necessary for the student to commit to reciting the ways of an entire Qiraa’ah, but it is better if he is aware of these other ways.   If a student is aware of these multiple ways within a specific Qiraa’ah, such as the ways Imam Hamzah will stop on certain words, then it is sufficient for the student to recite only one of these ways during his recitation.

Q16: Is it permissible to obtain an Ijazah only in one of the Ahruf regarding which there is a dispute?

A16:  As for only obtaining an Ijazah in one of the Ahruf regarding which there is a dispute, then this also is not for anyone except the one who has achieved a high rank in the recital; he does not become eligible for such an Ijazah except by reciting the entire Qur’an multiple times to one’s teachers, for it is mentioned that Abu ‘Amr al-Daani said, as quote in إجازات القراء, page 52:

The perfection of the recital is achieved by multiple recitations of the Qur’an to one’s teachers.

Q17:  Is it permissible to give Ijazah to a young child?

A17:  I do not see anything preventing a child from obtaining an Ijazah if he is trustworthy, religious, and mature, especially if he exhibits signs of talent and eligibility.

Q18:  What is the ultimate goal to be achieved by obtaining a Qur’anic Ijazah?

A18:  There is no doubt that seeking a Sanad in an authentic recitation traceable back to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  is a praiseworthy act in Islam, and why not since it has been narrated on the authority of some of the Salaf, that they used to travel seeking knowledge regarding the aHadeeth of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم?  Therefore, isn’t the seeking a sanad in an authentically narrated Qiraa’ah a praiseworthy act?  The student is rewarded and appreciated for this act, if Allah wills.

What is blameworthy is obtaining the Ijazah by he who has not perfected their recitation, and in this way, the student possesses an Ijazah without having a correct and authentic Qiraa’ah.  Verily, the deeds are performed but according to the intentions and for every person is what he intended.  Therefore, special attention needs to be paid to the fact that the Qur’anic Ijazah is a way to perfect one’s recitation of the Noble Qur’an, although it is not a condition for it, just like it is not a condition to teach it.  This is because those who obtain the Qur’anic Ijazah in one Qiraa’ah or more are fewer in number, and such a person’s recitation could also be tarnished with major or minor mistakes.   [In other words, the goal is perfecting one’s recitation, not obtaining an Ijazah, wallahu A’lam.]

Q19:  Mention two Sanads, one of them higher than the other, along with how this can be determined.

A19.  A high sanad can be that which is absolute or relative.  A high sanad which is absolute is that which involves the fewest number of individuals between you and the Prophet صلي الله عليه وسلم.  As for the high sanad which is only relative, then this involves the fewest number of individuals between you and one of the great Imams of the Qur’an, such as Ibn al-Jazari, al-Shatibi and others.

An example of a high sanad which is relative from the way of Shatibiyyah is found in two chains, starting with الشيخ أحمد بن عبد العزيز الزيلت, who recited to two shaykhs:

  1. عبد الفتاح هنيدي
  2. خليل الجنايني

These two recited to محمد أحمد المتولي, whose chain continues as follows:

  1. الدري التهامي
  2. أحمد المعروف بسلمونه
  3. إبراهيم العبيدي
  4. عبد الرحمن الأجهوري
  5. أحمد البقري
  6. محمد البقري
  7. عبد الرحمن اليمني
  8. شحاذة اليمني
  9. ناصر الدين الطبلاوي
  10. زكزيا الأنصاري
  11. رضوان العقبي
  12. الإمام محمد بن الجزري

This Sanad is between Sh. al-Zayyaat and Ibn al-Jazari, containing 13 men.  Is there a higher sanad than this from the way of Shatibiyyah?  Yes, and it is the sanad of our Shaykh العلامة بكري الطرابيشي, which is as follows:

  1. محمد سليم الحلواني
  2. أحمد بن محمد بن علي الرفاعي الحلواني
  3. أحمد بن رمضان المرزوقي
  4. إبراهيم بن بدوي بن أحمد العبيدي
  5. عبد الرحمن بن حسن الأجهوري
  6. أبو السماح أحمد بن رجب البقري
  7. محمد بن قاسم البقري
  8. عبد الرحمن اليمني
  9. شحاذة اليمني
  10. ناصر الدين الطبلاوي
  11. زكريا الأنصاري
  12. رضوان العقبي
  13. الإمام محمد بن الجزري

According to this chain, there are 12 men between Sh. al-Tarabeeshi and Ibn al-Jazari according to one famous way.  There are 11 men between them according to another way that is not so famous.  Therefore, the difference between this chain and the chain before it is just one individual, making Sh. al-Tarabeeshi’s sanad higher than Sh. al-Zayyaat’s according to the way of Shatibiyyah.  Both chains meet at إبراهيم العبيدي.  Most chains according to the way of Shatibi meet at Ibn al-Jazari and from him ultimately to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and this number (between Ibn al-Jazari and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) is mostly undisputed.

Therefore, you can count how many people are between you and Ibn al-Jazari, and in this way, determine the level or weight of your sanad, and Allah knows best.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 7

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